An excerpt from a footnote in my <em>Law Review</em> article

Here is a hopefully useful excerpt from a footnote in my Law Review article. It's not the whole footnote, and I'm not going to share the entire article for at least some time, as I have other plans for it. But this one footnote, the result of many, many hours of research, could be useful to others and I thought I would share it.

(For those who are interested, the article is not really about same-sex marriage as such, but about an obscure little choice of law problem in one of the very few areas where federal courts have to look into the validity of a marriage - the common law spousal privileges under Fed. R. Evid. 501.)

  1. 37 states have enacted statutes banning same-sex marriage and prohibiting the recognition of out-of-state same-sex marriages. Ala. Code § 30-1-19 (2009) (Alabama); Alaska Stat. § 25.05.013 (2009) (Alaska); Ariz. Rev. Stat. §§ 25-101, 25-112 (2009) (Arizona); Ark. Code Ann. §§ 9-11-107, 9-11-109, 9-11-208(b)-(c) (2009) (Arkansas); Colo. Rev. Stat. § 14-2-104 (2009) (Colorado); Del. Code Ann. tit. 13, § 101(a), (d) (2009) (Delaware); Fla. Stat. § 741.212 (2009) (Florida); Ga. Code Ann. § 19-3-3.1 (2009) (Georgia); Haw. Rev. Stat. § 572 (2009) (Hawai’i); Idaho Code Ann. §32-209 (2009) (Idaho); 750 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/201, 5/212, 5/213.1 (2009) (Illinois); Ind. Code § 31-11-1-1 (2009) (Indiana); Kan. Stat. Ann. §§ 23-101, 23-115 (2009) (Kansas); Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 402.005, 402.020, 402.040, 402.045 (2009) (Kentucky); La. Civ. Code Ann. art. 89, 96, 3520 (2009) (Louisiana); Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 19-A § 701 (2009) (Maine); Md. Code Ann., Fam. Law § 2-201 (2009) (Maryland); Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 551.1, 551.271 (2009) (Michigan); Minn. Stat. §§ 517.03, 518.01 (2009) (Minnesota); Miss. Code Ann. §93-1-1 (2009) (Mississippi); Mo. Rev. Stat. § 451.022 (2009) (Missouri); Mont. Code Ann. §§ 40-1-103, 40-1-401 (2009) (Montana); N.C. Gen. Stat. §§ 51-1, 51-1.2 (2009) (North Carolina); N.D. Cent. Code §§ 14-03-01; 14-13-08 (2009) (North Dakota); Ohio Rev. Code § 3101.01 (Ohio); Okla. Stat. tit. 43 § 43-3.1 (2009) (Oklahoma); Pa. Cons. Stat. § 1704 (2009) (Pennsylvania); S.C. Code Ann. §§ 20-1-10, 20-1-15 (2009) (South Carolina); S.D. Codified Laws §§ 25-1-1, 25-1-38 (2009) (South Dakota); Tenn. Code Ann. § 36-3-113 (2009) (Tennessee); Tex. Fam. Code §§ 2.001, 6.204 (2009) (Texas); Utah Code Ann. §§ 30-1-2, 30-1-4.1 (2009) (Utah); Va. Code §§ 20-45.2, 20-45.3 (2009) (Virginia); Wash. Rev. Code §§ 26.04.010, 26.04.020 (2009) (Washington); W. Va. Code § 48-2-603 (2009) (West Virginia); Wis. Stat. §§ 765.001, 765.01, 765.04 (2009) (Wisconsin); Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 20-1-101 (2009) (Wyoming). One state, New Hampshire, has enacted statutes banning same sex marriage, but allowing for limited domestic recognition of out-of-state same-sex marriages, provided that the couple establish domicile in the state after marrying and that the marriage was not effected in a manner designed to circumvent the state’s prohibition of such marriages. N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 457:1-3, 457:43 (2009). Research produced no word from Vermont’s legislature or courts on whether out-of-state same-sex marriages would be recognized as civil unions under Vermont’s civil union framework under Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 15, ch.23 (2009). However, given that Vermont’s civil union framework has now been supplanted by allowing same-sex marriage in the state, . . . such recognition will likely be unnecessary in the future. Vermont is likely to recognize out-of-state same sex marriages as valid, as are the other three states which now allow same-sex marriage, although this has not yet been tested in court. . . . Vermont formerly had a statutory ban on same-sex marriage, Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 15, §§ 5, 8 (2008), but has since repealed it, becoming the first state to legislatively enact same-sex marriage without a court order to do so. . .&nbsp. As of this writing, only two state statutes banning same-sex marriage have been struck down by courts. Conn. Gen. Stat. §46b-38aa (2008) (providing for same-sex civil unions but defining marriage as “the union of one man and one woman”), invalidated by Kerrigan v. Comm’r of Pub. Health, 49 Conn. Sup. 664 (2008) (holding that the statute’s definition of marriage violated state constitution’s guarantee of equal protection); Iowa Code § 595.2 (2009) (Iowa) (stating that “[o]nly a marriage between a male and a female is valid”), invalidated by Varnum v. Brien, No. CV5965, 2007 WL 2468667 (Iowa Dist. 2007) (unconstitutional on equal protection grounds), aff’d Varnum v. Brien, No. 07-1499, slip op. at 69 (Iowa 2009). 29 states have written same-sex marriage bans into their state constitutions. Ala. Const. amend. 774 (Alabama); Alaska Const. art. I, § 25 (Alaska); Ariz. Const. art. XXX (Arizona); Ark. Const. amend. 83 (Arkansas); Cal. Const. art. I, § 7.5 (California); Colo. Const. art. II, § 31 (Colorado); Fla. Const. art. I, § 27 (Florida); Ga. Const. art. I § IV (Georgia); Haw. Const. art. 1, § 23 (Hawai’i); Idaho Const. art. III, § 28 (Idaho); Kan. Const. art. 15, § 16 (Kansas); Ky. Const. § 233A (Kentucky); La. Const. art. XII, § 15 (Louisiana); Mich. Const. art. I, § 25 (Michigan); Miss. Const. art. 14, § 263A (Mississippi); Mo. Const. art. I, § 33 (Missouri); Mont. Const. art. XIII, § 7 (Montana); Neb. Const. art. I, § 29 (Nebraska); Nev. Const. art. I, § 21 (Nevada); N.D. Const. art. XI, § 28 (North Dakota); Ohio Const. art. XV, § 11 (Ohio); Okla. Const. art. 2, § 35 (Oklahoma); Or. Const. art. XV, § 5a (Oregon); S.C. Const. art. XVII, § 15 (South Carolina); S.D. Const. art. XXI, § 9 (South Dakota); Tenn. Const. art. XI, § 18 (Tennessee); Tex. Const. art 1, § 32 (Texas); Utah Const. art 1, §29 (Utah); Va. Const. art. I, § 15-A (Virginia); Wis. Const. art. XIII, § 13 (Wisconsin). Only Massachusetts, Vermont, Connecticut and Iowa currently allow same-sex marriages. . . . The four remaining states (New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, and Rhode Island) and the District of Columbia have no ban. See National Conference of State Legislatures, Same Sex Marriage, http://www.ncsl.org/programs/cyf/samesex.htm (last visited March 27, 2009). . . .
Tom G Varik